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Appears in: WCSQ 2017
Pages:
Publication year: 2017
ISBN: 

Date: March 2017

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Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora .

Abstract

Currently, more than one billion people live with some form of disability. A person’s environment has a huge impact on the extent and impact of their disability, e.g. inaccessible environments create disability by creating barriers, while accessible environments diminish disability and enable full participation and inclusion. Web applications are often the only means available for people to access certain services or to certain information, e.g. healthcare information, public services, banking, education, and entertainment. Web accessibility is the property of a web application to support the same level of effectiveness for users with disabilities as it does for users without disabilities. In this study, we propose the use of simulators, automated tools, expert-based testing, and user-based testing in the context of a comprehensive method for accessibility testing of web application in agile environments. The proposed method consist of five stages, as defined by the International Software Testing Qualifications Board: test planning and control; test analysis and design; test implementation and execution; evaluating exit criteria and reporting; and test closure activities. For each of these stages, the method details specific tasks to perform accessibility testing of web applications in the context of agile developments.

Keywords

Disability, Web Accessibility, WCAG, ISO 9241-171, ISO/IEC 25010, Software Testing Process, ISTQB, Agile

References

Brajnik, G. (2006). Web accessibility testing: when the method is the culprit. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers for Helping People with Special Need (ICCHP), pp. 156-163.

Brajnik, G. (2008). Beyond conformance: the role of accessibility evaluation methods. In Proceedings of the Web Information Systems Engineering Conference (WISE), pp. 63–80.

Freire A. P., Goularte R., and Mattos-Fortes R. P. (2007). Techniques for developing more accessible web applications. In Proceedings of the 25th ACM International Conference on Design of Communication (SIGDOC), pp. 162-167.

Goncalves de Branco, R., Cagnin, M. I., Barroso Paiva, D. M. (2014). AccTrace: Accessibility in phases of requirements engineering, design, and coding software. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA), pp. 225-228.

Hambling, B. (2015). Software Testing: An ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Guide 3rd Edition. Swindon: BCS.

Henka, A. and Zimmermann, G. (2014). Persona based accessibility testing. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 226-231.

Herramhof, S., Petrie, H., Strobbe, C., Vlachogiannis, E., Weimann, K., Weber, G., & Velasco, C. A. (2006). Test case management tools for accessibility testing. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computers for Helping People with Special Needs (ICCHP), pp. 215-222.

ISO. (2011). ISO/IEC 25010 Systems and software engineering — Systems and software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) — System and software quality models. Retrieved from http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=35733

ISO. (2012). ISO 9241-171 Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Guidance on software accessibility. Retrieved from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:9241:-171:ed-1:v1:en

Keates, S., Looms, P. O. (2014). The role of simulation in designing for universal access. In Proceedings of 8th International Conference of Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI), pp. 54-63.

Luján-Mora, S. and Masri, F. (2012). Integration of Web Accessibility into Agile Methods. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), 3, pp. 123-127.

Masri, F. and Luján-Mora, S. (2011). A Combined Agile Methodology for the Evaluation of Web Accessibility. In Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI), pp. 423-428.

Sánchez-Gordón, M-L., Moreno, L. (2014). Toward an integration of web accessibility into testing processes. In Procedia Computer Science27, pp. 281-291.

Sanchez-Gordon, S., Sánchez-Gordón, M-L., Luján-Mora, S. (2016).Towards an engineering process for developing accessible software in very small entities. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Software Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE), p.241-246.

Slatin, J., Rush, S. (2003). Maximum accessibility: making your web site more usable for everyone. Addison-Wesley Professional.

Torkey. F., Keshk, A., Hamza, T., and Ibrahim. A. (2007). A new methodology for web testing.  In ¨Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Communications Technology, pp. 77–83.

Vigo, M., Brown, J. and Conway, V. (2013). Benchmarking Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools: Measuring the Harm of Sole Reliance on Automated Tests. In Proceedings of the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, pp. 1-10.

W3C. (2005). Introduction to web accessibility. Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php

W3C. (2008). Web content accessibility guidelines WCAG 2.0. Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

W3C. (2010). Involving users in evaluating web accessibility. Retrieved from  https://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/users.html

W3C. (2016). Web accessibility evaluation tools list. Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/tools/

WHO. (2011). World report of disability. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf.

Zimmermann, G., and Vanderheiden, G. (2008). Accessible design and testing in the application development process: considerations for an integrated approach. Universal Access in the Information Society7(1-2), pp. 117-128.

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Appears in: Journal of Universal Computer Science J.UCS
Pages: 55-81
Publication year: 2016
ISBN:  0948-695X.

ISSN online: 0948-6968

Special Issue: Future Trends in Computing Technology in Education

Date: January 2016

Cite

Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Sergio Luján-Mora . How Could MOOCs Become Accessible? The Case of edX and the Future of Inclusive Online Learning. In Journal of Universal Computer Science (J.UCS), 22(1), p. 55-81. January 2016. ISSN 0948-695X. ISSN online: 0948-6968.

Abstract

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have great potential to provide learning opportunities for people around the world. However, to reach their full potential, MOOCs need to meet the accessibility needs of diverse learners, with and without disabilities. In the literature review, we have found some published research on accessibility evaluations of MOOCs content and platforms, but we have not found published research on how to design existing and future MOOC platforms to assist authors in producing accessible content. The main purpose of this research is to contribute to the discussion about the future of inclusive online learning, by proposing a software design to incorporate features in MOOC platforms to enable, support and guide authors toward conceptualizing, designing, building and testing accessible MOOCs. We also present the results of an evaluation of the accessibility issues of Studio, the edX course-authoring software, based on ATAG 2.0.

Keywords

ATAG, MOOC, Massive Open Online Courses, UAAG, WCAG, WCAG-EM, WGAC2ICT, accessibility, accessibility conformance evaluation, disabilities, edX, mobile learning, online learning

Acknowledgements

This work is partially funded by the Prometheus project of the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT), Government of Ecuador.

References

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[Calle-Jimenez et al., 14] Calle-Jimenez, T., Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.: “Web accessibility evaluation of massive open online courses on geographical information systems”. In Proc. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, 680-686. 2014.

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[edX, 15a] edX: “The Open edX”. 2015. http://code.edx.org/

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[Ferris, 15] Ferris, L.: “Thoughts on the MOOC captioning lawsuit”. 2015.

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[gitHub, 15] gitHub: “Sites powered by Open edX”. 2015.

https://github.com/edx/edx-platform/wiki/Sites-powered-by-Open-edX

[GOC, 11] Government of Canada: “Standard on web accessibility”. 2011.

http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=23601

[Horton and Sloan, 14] Horton, S., Sloan, D.: “Accessibility in practice: a process-driven approach to accessibility”. In Langdon, P., Lazar, J., Heylighen, A., Dong, H. (Eds.), Inclusive designing – joining usability, accessibility, and inclusion, 105-115. Springer International Publishing. 2014.

[Iniesto and Covadonga, 14] Iniesto, F., Covadonga, R.: “Accessibility assessment of MOOC platforms in Spanish: UNED COMA, COLMENIA and MiriadaX”. In Proc. IEEE International Symposium in Computers in Education, 169-172. 2014.

[Iniesto and Covadonga, 15] Iniesto, F., Covadonga, R.: “Accessible user profile modeling for academic services based on MOOCs”. In Proc. ACM International Conference on Human Computer Interaction. 2015.

[ISO, 12] ISO: “ISO 9241-171 Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Guidance on software accessibility”. 2012.

[Kalyvioti and Mikropoulos, 13] Kalyvioti, K., Mikropoulos, T.: “A virtual reality test for the identification of memory strengths of dyslexic students in higher education”. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 19(18), 2698-2721. 2013.

[Liyanagunawardena and Williams, 16] Liyanagunawardena, T., Williams, S.: “Elderly learners and massive open online courses: a review”. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 5(1), 1-11. 2016.

[Lohman, 15] Lohman, T.: “Mobile applications and web accessibility”. 2015.

http://www.accessiq.org/news/features/2015/02/mobile-applications-and-web-accessibility

[NAD, 15] U.S. National Association of the Deaf: “NAD sues Harvard and MIT for discrimination in public online content”. 2015.

http://nad.org/news/2015/2/nad-sues-harvard-and-mit-discrimination-public-online-content

[NZG, 13] New Zealand Government: “Web accessibility standard”. 2013.

https://webtoolkit.govt.nz/standards/web-accessibility-standard-1-0/

[Martindale and Wiley, 04] Martindale, T., Wiley, D.: “Using weblogs in scholarship and teaching”. TechTrends, 49(2), 55-61. 2004.

[Molina, 10] Molina, R.: “Higher education for disabled students”. Research Journal, 34(70), 95-115. 2010.

[Morales, 07] Morales, A.: “White book on university and disability”. Grafo S.A Press. 2007.

[Nakata, 14] Nakata, K.: “WCAG 2.0 should not be applied to software and mobile apps”. Criptzone Insight. 2014.

https://insight.cryptzone.com/accessibility/wcag-2-0-should-not-be-applied-to-software-and-mobile-apps/

[Notess and Lorenzen-Huber, 07] Notess, M., Lorenzen-Huber, L.: “Online learning for seniors: barriers and opportunities”. eLearn, 2007(5).

http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1266885.1266893

[OCR, 13] U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights: “Resolution agreement South Carolina Technical College System”. 2013.

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[Rodríguez-Ascaso and Boticario, 15] Rodríguez-Ascaso, A., Boticario, J. G.: “Accessibility and MOOCs: towards an integral perspective”. Ibero American Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 61-85. 2015.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 13] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.: “Web accessibility of MOOCs for elderly students”. In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, 1-6. 2013.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 14a]  Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.:  “MOOCs gone wild”. In Proc. International Technology, Education and Development Conference, 1449-1458. 2014.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 14b]  Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.: “Web accessibility requirements for massive open online courses”. In Proc. International Conference on Quality and Accessibility of Virtual Learning, 530-535. 2014.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 15a] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.: “Adaptive content presentation extension for Open edX – enhancing MOOCs accessibility for users with disabilities”. In Proc. International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, 181-183. 2015.

[Sanchez-Gordon et al., 15b] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Calle-Jimenez, T., Luján-Mora, S.: “Relevance of MOOCs for training of public sector employees: enrollment, completion and web accessibility challenges”. In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, 1-5. 2015.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 15c] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.: “An ecosystem for corporate training with accessible MOOCs and OERs”. In Proc. IEEE International Conference on MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education, 123-128. 2015.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 15d] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S.: “Accessible blended learning for non-native speakers using MOOCs”. In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Interactive Collaborative and Blended Learning, 19-24. 2015.

[Sanchez-Gordon and Luján-Mora, 16] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S: “Design, implementation and evaluation of MOOCs to improve inclusion of diverse learners”. In R. Mendoza-Gonzalez (Ed.), User-Centered Design Strategies for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), 115-141. IGI Global. 2016.

[Shah, 14] Shah, D.: “MOOCs in 2014: breaking down the numbers”. edSurge. 2014.

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[Shah, 15] Shah, D.: “MOOCs in 2015: breaking down the numbers”. edSurge. 2015.

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2015-12-28-moocs-in-2015-breaking-down-the-numbers

[Singleton, 13] Singleton, K.: “Re-defining accessibility when it comes to MOOCs”. George Mason University. 2013.

http://eportfolio.kjsingle.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Accessibility-and-MOOCs_Final.pdf

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[W3C, 13] W3C: “Guidance on applying WCAG 2.0 to non-web information and communications technologies WCAG2ICT”. 2013.

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[W3C, 15a] W3C: “Authoring tool accessibility guidelines ATAG 2.0”. 2015.

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Appears in: CIED 2015 Procedings 
Pages: TBD
Publication year: 2015
ISBN:  TBD

Conference: XIII Congreso Iberoamericano de Informática Educativa y Discapacidades CIED 2015

Dates: 16-19 Nov 2015
Location: Quito, Ecuador

Cite

Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra, Luján-Mora, Sergio, Adaptación de la metodología de evaluación de conformidad con la accesibilidad web WCAG-EM para ambientes de e-Learning, XIII Congreso Iberoamericano de Informática Educativa y Discapacidades (CIED 2015), Quito (Ecuador). November 16-19, 2015, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2331.0800.

Abstract

La Convención sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad establece que las personas con discapacidad deben poder participar plenamente en todos los aspectos de la vida, incluyendo la educación y el trabajo. Sin embargo, las estadísticas muestran que, en relación con la población en general, un bajo porcentaje de personas con discapacidad accede a la educación superior, y un porcentaje aún menor la termina. El presente trabajo de investigación propone una adaptación de la metodología de evaluación de la accesibilidad web WCAG-EM para su utilización en contenidos educativos para aprendizaje en línea, en beneficio de todos los estudiantes, discapacitados o no.

Keywords

Accesibilidad Web, Contenidos Educativos, Aprendizaje en Línea, WCAG, WCAG-EM

Acknowledgements

Este trabajo ha sido financiado parcialmente por el Proyecto Prometeo de la Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT) del Gobierno del Ecuador.

References

[1]     Naciones Unidas, “Development and Human Rights for All”, 2014. Disponible en: http://www.un.org/disabilities/

[2]     Naciones Unidas, “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol”, 2008.

[3]     Naciones Unidas, “Thematic study on the right of persons with disabilities to education”, 2013. Disponible en: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Disability/StudyEducation/A_HRC_25_29_ENG.pdf

[4]     R. Molina, “Higher education for disabled students”, Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 70, 2010, pp. 95-115.

[5]     A. Morales, “White Paper on University and Disability”, Royal Board on Disability, 2007.

[6]     Organización Mundial de la Salud, “Informe Mundial sobre la Discapacidad”, 2011.

[7]     S. Sanchez-Gordon, S. Luján-Mora, “MOOCs Gone Wild”, 8va Conferencia Internacional de Tecnología, Educación y Desarrollo, 2014, pp. 1449-1458.

[8]     W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0”, 2008. Disponible en:

http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

[9]     W3C, “Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) 1.0”, 2014. Disponible en:

http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG-EM/

[10] edX, “Curso de Realidad Macro-económica Latinoamericana”, 2015. Disponible en:

https://courses.edx.org/courses/course-v1:IDBx+IDB9x+2015_T2/courseware/d7457dd2deca436db1e4fee83f7d7b30/ac1f8b6015ff46ac8aee5d659d0569c4/

 

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Appears in: ITHET 2015 Procedings 
Pages: 181-183
Publication year: 2015
ISBN:  978-1-4799-1756-3.

Conference: 14th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2015)

Dates: 11-13 Jun 2015
Location: Caparica, Portugal

Cite

Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra, Calle-Jimenez, Tania, Luján-Mora, Sergio, Relevance of MOOCs for Training of Public Sector Employees, 14th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET 2015),  Caparica (Portugal). June 11-13, 2015.  ISBN: 978-1-4799-1756-3.

Abstract

A massive open online course (MOOC) is a type of online course that can be taken for a huge number of participants. Originally, MOOCs scope was to provide introductory university level courses to students worldwide. Currently, the MOOC model is expanding is scope to training in both private and public sectors. There are more than 30 million of public sector employees only in Latin American and Caribbean Region. Given the huge number of public employees that need to be continuously trained at regional, national, and local range, using MOOCs for training in public sector is not only a valid option but also a necessity. Among the government topics that public employees need training are public service culture, national political constitution, government structure and policies, national development plans, institutional strategy, macroeconomics, monetary and fiscal policy, sovereign debt, regulatory and legal frameworks, and tools for public administration such as management for results. Also, in recent years, government and private organizations have recognized the importance of training their employees on space technologies that manage geographic information for the primary purpose of increase development through getting knowledge of the territory and its behavior. This paper presents four cases of use of MOOCs for public sector training. It also presents strategies to address three major challenges: enrollment, completion and web accessibility. Finally, it states some conclusion and future research.

Keywords

Massive Open Online Courses; MOOCs; Training; Public Sector; Government; GIS; Enrollment; Completion; Web Accessibility

Acknowledgements

This work is partially funded by the Prometheus project of the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT), Government of Ecuador.

References

[1]     Formulation, 2003.  Available online: http://www.virtual.unal.edu.co/cursos/economicas/2006838/pdf/dapf/Formacion.pdf

[2]     S. Sanchez-Gordon and S.Luján-Mora, “MOOCs Gone Wild”, in Proceedings of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference INTED, 2014, pp. 1449-1458.

[3]     W. Shah, “MOOCs in 2014: Breaking Down the Numbers”, in edSurge. Available online: https://www.edsurge.com/n/2014-12-26-moocs-in-2014-breaking-down-the-numbers

[4]     MIT Technology Review, “The Most Important Education Technology in 200 Years”, 2014. Available online:

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[9]     IMF, “IMF and edX Join Forces to Pilot Online Economics and Financial Courses”, 2013. Available online:

https://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2013/pr13221.htm

[10]  IMF, “IMFx”, 2014. Available online:

https://www.edx.org/school/imfx

[11]  IAEN, “CNE02 Constitución para Servidores Públicos”, 2014. Available online:

https://www.upex.edu.ec/courses/course-v1:IAEN+CNE02+2014M10/info

[12]  OOA, “Iniciación a los SIG y su Aplicación en Desastres Naturales”, 2014. Available online:

https://www.ooed.org/courses/191/learn

[13]  L. Papano, “The Year of the MOOC”, 2012. Available online:

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/education/edlife/massive-open-online-courses-are-multiplying-at-a-rapid-pace.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

[14]  N. Stevanovik, “Effects of Motivation on Performance of Students in MOOC”, in Sinteza Internet and Education, 2014, pp. 418-422.

[15]  C. Milligan, A. Littlejohn, and A. Margaryan, “Patterns of Engagement in Connectivist MOOCs”, in MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2013, 9(2), 149-159.

[16]  P. Hill, Emerging Student Patterns in MOOCs: A Graphical View, 2013. Available online:

http://mfeldstein.com/emerging_student_patterns_in_moocs_graphical_view/

[17]  H. Davis, K. Dickens, M. Leon, M. Sanchéz, and S. White, “MOOCs for Universities and Learners. An analysis of motivating factors”, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computer Supported Education CSEDU, Spain, 2014, pp. 105-116.

[18]  K. Jordan, “MOOC Completion Rate: The Data”. 2014. Available online: http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.html

[19]  S. Sanchez-Gordon, S. Luján-Mora, “Web accessibility of MOOCs for elderly students”, in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training ITHET 2013, pp. 1-6.

[20]  W3C, “Introduction to Web Accessibility”, 2012. Available online: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php

[21]  WHO, “Word Report on Disability”, 2011. Available online: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/en/index.html

[22]  United Nations, “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol”, 2008.

[23]  T. Calle-Jimenez, S. Sanchez-Gordon, S. Luján-Mora. “Web Accessibility Evaluation of Massive Open Online Courses on Geographical Information Systems”, in IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference EDUCON, 2014, pp. 680-686.

[24]  OpenClassrooms, “Unlimited access to OpenClassrooms for all jobseekers”, 2015. Available online:

http://blog.openclassrooms.com/2015/04/french-president-hollande-announces-unlimited-access-to-openclassrooms-for-all-jobseekers/

No tags

Appears in: ACHI 2015 Proceedings
Pages: 181-183
Publication year: 2015
ISBN: 978-1-61208-382-7

ISSN: 2308-4138

Conference: ACHI 2015, The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Dates: 22-27 Feb 2015
Location: Lisbon, Portugal

Cite

Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra; Luján-Mora, Sergio. Adaptive Content Presentation Extension for Open edX – Enhancing MOOCs Accessibility for Users with Disabilities, Eighth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions  (ACHI  2015), pp.181-183, Lisbon (Portugal), February 22-27, 2015.  ISSN: 2308-4138. ISBN: 978-1-61208-382-7.

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a three-layer architecture to extend the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) platform Open edX to enhance course content accessibility for users with disabilities. Because of their open nature and global scope, MOOCs are a great opportunity for people with disabilities that might not be able to engage in learning otherwise. The goal of the proposed extension is to enhance MOOCs’ accessibility by adapting course content to student needs, preferences, skills and situations. In this approach, the user does not need to know what adaptations should be applied to the MOOC to make it more accessible for them. The user only needs to keep updated their accessibility preferences in their user profile. The extension automatically applies all the necessary adaptations as commanded by the adaptive engine and provides the presentation layer with the content best suited for the user.

Keywords

Massive open online course; MOOC; accessibility; adaptive content presentation; Open edX

Acknowledgements

This work is partially funded by the Prometheus project of the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT), Government of Ecuador.

References

[1] S. Sanchez-Gordon and S. Luján-Mora, “MOOCs gone Wild”, in Proceedings of the 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, March 2014, pp. 1449-1458.

[2] W. Shah, MOOCs in 2014: Breaking Down the Numbers. edSurge. [Retrieved: December 2014] https://www.edsurge.com/n/2014-12-26- moocs-in-2014-breaking-down-the-numbers

[3] M. Bohnsack and S. Puhl, “Accessibility of MOOCs”, In Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp.141-144.

[4] edX, The Open edX, 2014. [Retrieved: December 2014] http://code.edx.org/

[5] gitHub, Sites powered by Open edX, 2014. [Retrieved: December 2014]https://github.com/edx/edx-platform/wiki/Sites-powered-byOpen-edX

[6] C. Stephanidis et al., “Adaptable and adaptive user interfaces for disabled users in the AVANTI project”, in Intelligence in Services and Networks: Technology for Ubiquitous Telecom Services, Springer, 1998, pp. 153-166.

[7] C. Stephanidis, “Adaptive techniques for universal access”, in User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 11 (1-2), 2001, pp. 159-179.

[8] J. Liu, C. K. Wong, and K. Hui, “An adaptive user interface based on personalized learning”, in IEEE Intelligent Systems, 18 (2), 2003, pp. 52-57.

[9] D. Sloan, M. Atkinson, C. Machin, and K. Li, “The potential of adaptive interfaces as an accessibility aid for older web users”, in Proceedings of the International Cross Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, ACM, April 2010, doi: 10.1145/1805986.1806033

[10] J. Ruiz, H. Pijeira Díaz, J. Ruipérez-Valiente, P. Muñoz-Merino, and C. Delgado Kloos, “Towards the development of a learning analytics extension in open edX”, in Proceedings of the 2nd. International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, ACM, October 2014, pp. 299-306, doi: 10.1145/2669711.2669914

[11] S. Sanchez-Gordon and S. Luján-Mora, “Web Accessibility Requirements for Massive Open Online Courses”, in Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Quality and Accessibility of Virtual Learning, May 2014, pp.530-535.

[12] S. Sanchez-Gordon and S. Luján-Mora, “Web accessibility of MOOCs for elderly students”, in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, October 2013, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ITHET.2013.6671024

[13] W3C. “WAI Guidelines and Techniques”, 2011. [Retrieved: January 2015]http://www.w3.org/WAI/guid-tech.html

[14] V.F. de Santana, R. de Oliveira, L.D.A. Almeida, and M.C.C. Baranauskas, “Web accessibility and people with dyslexia: a survey on techniques and guidelines”, in Proceedings of the International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, ACM, April 2012, doi:10.1145/2207016.220704

 

No tags

Appears in: CAFVIR 2014 Proceedings
Pages: 530-535
Publication year: 2014
ISBN: 978-9929-40-497-7
Conference: Actas del V Congreso Internacional sobre Calidad y Accesibilidad de la Formación Virtual (CAFVIR 2014)
Dates: 14-15 May
Location: Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala

Cite

Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra; Luján-Mora, Sergio, Web Accessibility Requirements for Massive Open Online Courses. Can MOOCs be really universal and open to anyone? Actas del V Congreso Internacional sobre Calidad y Accesibilidad de la Formación Virtual (CAFVIR 2014), pp.530-535, Antigua Guatemala (Guatemala), May 14-16, 2014. ISBN: 978-9929-40-497-7.

Abstract

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities stresses that persons with disabilities should be able  to participate fully in all aspects of life, including education.  Nevertheless, statistics shows than a low percentage of persons with disabilities complete higher education. MOOCs, being online courses available to a very large number of people, have a great potential to satisfy the learning needs of millions of people. When designing a MOOC, it is important to consider the diversity of abilities of all potential learners. Genuine universality and openness can only be achieved if all kind of users can access and use MOOCs to engage in learning regardless their abilities. This paper proposes two categories of web accessibility requirements: for personal and for non-personal disabilities. Each category is characterized and a preliminary list of web accessibility requirements for each one is presented. Both MOOC’s platforms and contents must meet web accessibility requirements. If contents are accessible but not the platform, or vice versa, the MOOC is not accessible.

Keywords

Massive open online courses; web accessibility requirements; universal design; personal disabilities, non-personal
disabilities

Acknowledgements

This work is partially funded by the Prometheus project of the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT), Government of Ecuador.

References

[1] UNICEF, “It´s about ability. Learning guide on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”, pp.15, 2009. [Online] Available: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Its_About_Ability_Learning_Guide_EN.pdf

[2] United Nations, “Development and Human Rights for All”, 2014. [Online] Available: http://www.un.org/disabilities/

[3] United Nations, “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol”, pp. 16-18, 2008.

[4] Molina, R., “Higher education for disabled students”, Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 70, pp. 95-115, 2010.

[5] Morales, A., “White Paper on University and Disability”, Royal Board on Disability, 2007.

[6] Gaebel, M. “MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses”. European University Association Occasional Papers, 2013.

[7] Parr, C. “MOOC makes Oxford online dictionary”, Times Higher Education. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/cc3Yiw

[8] Else, H., “Appealing to the masses”, Professional Engineering, pp.43-46, 2013.

[9] World Health Organization, “Word Report on Disability”, 2011. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/1SCrIc

[10] Farrelly G., “Practitioner barriers to diffusion and implementation of web accessibility”, Technology and Disability, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 223-232, 2011.

[11] United Nations, “World population prospects: The 2012 revisions”, June 2013. [Online] Available: http://esa.un.org/wpp/

[12] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Lujan-Mora, S., “Web accessibility of MOOCs for elderly students”, International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, pp.1-6, 2013.

[13] W3C, “Weaving the Web Berners Lee”, 1999. [Online] Available: http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Weaving/glossary.html

[14] ISO, “ISO 9241-171 Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Guidance on software accessibility”, 2012.

[15] W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCAG 2.0”, 2008 [Online] Available: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

[16] World Health Organization, “Visual Impairment and Blindness Fact Sheet”, 2013. [Online] Available: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/

[17] Christensen S., “How we work to make the web speak”, Computers in Libraries, Vol. 21, No.9, pp. 30-34, 2001.
[18] Prougestaporn, P., “Development of a web accessibility model for visually-impaired students on e-learning”, International Conference on Educational and Network Technology ICENT, pp. 20-24, 2010.

[19] World Health Organization, “Deafness and Hearing Loss Fact Sheet”, 2014. [Online] Available:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/

[20] Hasselbring, T., Williams C., “Use of computer technology to help students with special needs”, Future of children, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp.102-122, 2000.

[21] WEBAIM, “Cognitive Introduction”, 2013. [Online] Available: http://webaim.org/articles/cognitive/

Pouncey, I., “Web accessibility for cognitive disabilities and learning difficulties”, 2010. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/Ex7nFC

[22] CBM, “Psychosocial disabilities”, 2014. [Online] Available: http://www.cbm.org/Psychosocial-disabilities-251912.php

[23] World Health Organization, “Depression Fact Sheet”, 2012. [Online] Available: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/

[24] World Health Organization, “Dementia Fact Sheet”, 2012. [Online] Available: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs362/en/

[25] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Lujan-Mora, S., “Accessibility considerations of Massive Online Open Courses as creditable courses in Engineering Programs”, International Conference on Education, Research and Innovation ICERI, pp. 5853-5862, 2013.

[26] World Bank, “World Development Indicators: Internet users”, 2013 [Online] Available:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.P2

No tags

Appears in: IEEE Xplore Digital Library
Pages: 680-686
Publication year: 2014
Conference: IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON 2014) 
Dates: 3-5 April
Location:Istambul, Turkey

Cite

Calle-Jimenez, Tania; Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra; Luján-Mora, Sergio. Web Accessibility Evaluation of Massive Open Online Courses on Geographical Information SystemsIEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON 2014), pp. 680-686, Istambul (Turkey), April 3-5, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2014.6826167

Abstract

This paper describes some of the challenges that exist to make accessible massive open online courses (MOOCs) on Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These courses are known by the generic name of Geo-MOOCs. A MOOC is an online course that is open to the general public for free, which causes a massive registration. A GIS is a computer application that acquire, manipulate, manage, model and visualize geo-referenced data. The goal of a Geo-MOOC is to expand the culture of spatial thinking and the use of geographic information, enabling geospatial web technologies for widespread use. However, the Geo-MOOCs, by nature, have inherent problems of accessibility. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), Article 24, recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education. States Parties must ensure that persons with disabilities are able to access general tertiary education, vocational training, adult education and lifelong learning without discrimination and on an equal basis with others. Therefore, it is important to have accessible Geo-MOOCs. In this paper, we present the results of the evaluation of a Geo-MOOC called “Maps and the Geospatial Revolution” using three tools available for free on the Internet: Chrome Developer Tools – Accessibility Audit, eXaminator and WAVE; and included a selection of web content and geographical data representative of the course. This provided feedback for establishing recommendations to improve the accessibility of the analyzed course. Other Geo-MOOCs can also benefit from these recommendations.

Keywords

Geographical Information Systems; Massive Open Online Courses; Geo-MOOC; Web Accessibility; Automatic Accessibility Evaluation Tools.

Acknowledgement

This work has been partially supported by the Prometeo  Project by SENESCYT, Ecuadorian Government.

References

[1]     United Nations, “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol”, pp. 16-18, 2008.

[2]     J. Carter and M. Marker, “Web accessibility for people with disabilities: an introduction for Web developers”, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, vol. 44 (4), pp. 225-233, 2001.

[3]     S. Burgstahler, “Real connections: Making distance learning accessible to everyone”, 2002. Available online:
http://www3.cac.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/PDF/distance.learn.pdf

[4]     G. Farrelly, “Practitioner barriers to diffusion and implementation of web accessibility”, Technology and Disability, vol. 23 (4), pp. 223-232, 2011.

[5]     J. Kay, P. Riemann, E. Diebold and B. Kummerfeld, “MOOCs: So Many Learners, So Much Pot ential”, IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 28 (3), pp. 70-77, 2013.

[6]     A. Schutzberg, “Building the World’s First Geo-MOOC: An Interview with Penn State’s Anthony Robinson”, 2013. Available online: http://www.directionsmag.com/podcasts/building-the-worlds-first-geo-mooc-an-interview-with-penn-states-antho/311753

[7]     J. Wooseob, “Spatial perception of blind people by auditory maps on a tablet PC”, Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 44 (1), pp 1–8, 2008.

[8]     W3C, “Introduction to Web Accessibility”, 2012. Available online: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php

[9]     W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0.”, 2008. Available online:
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

[10]  M. Vigo, J. Brown, and V. Conway., “Benchmarking web accessibility evaluation tools: measuring the harm of sole reliance on automated tests”, Proceedings of the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, 2013.

[11]  K. Grooves,  “Choosing an Automated Accessibility Testing Tool: 13 Questions you  should ask”, 2013. Available online:
http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/06/28/choosing-an-automated-accessibility-testing-tool-13-questions-you-should-ask/

[12]  Coursera, “Maps and the Geospatial Revolution”, 2014. Available online:https://class.coursera.org/maps-001/class

[13]  E. Velleman, and C. Strobbeet, “Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM)”. Technical Report WAB Cluster, 2006.

[14]  M. Vigo, M. Arrue, G. Brajnik, R. Lomuscio, and J. Abascal, “Quantitative metrics for measuring web accessibility”, Proceedings of International Cross-disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, pp 99-107, 2007.

[15]  W3C, “WAI-ARIA Overview”, 2014. Available online:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/aria

[16]  Google, “Accessibility Developer Tools”, 2012. Available online:
https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/accessibility-developer-t/fpkknkljclfencbdbgkenhalefipecmb?hl=en

[17]  WebAIM, “Web Accessibility evaluation Tool.”, 2012. Available online:
http://wave.webaim.org

[18]  Benavidez, C., “Automatic Evaluation of Accessibility”, 2014. Available online:
http://examinator.ws/

[19]  ESRI, “ArcGIS Online”, 2014. Avaliable online: http://epn1.maps.arcgis.com/

No tags

mar/14

18

Publication: MOOCS gone wild!

Appears in: INTED2014 Proceedings
Pages: 1449-1458
Publication year: 2014
ISBN: 978-84-616-8412-0
ISSN: 2340-1079
Conference: 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference 
Dates: 10-12 March, 2014
Location: Valencia, España

Cite

Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra; Luján-Mora, Sergio, MOOCs Gone Wild, Proceedings of 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference  INTED 2014, pp. 1449-1458, Valencia (Spain), 10-14 March, 2014.

Abstract

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been around since 2008, when 2,300 students took part in a course called “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” organized by University of Manitoba (Canada). The year 2012 was widely recognized as “The year of the MOOC”, because several MOOC initiatives gained a world-wide popularity. Nowadays, many experts consider MOOCs a “revolution in education”. However, other experts think is too soon to make such a claim since MOOCs still have to prove they are here to stay.

With the spread of MOOCs, different providers have appeared, such as Coursera, Udacity and EdX. In addition, some popular LMS (Learning Management Systems), such as Moodle or Sakai, have also been used to provide MOOCs. Besides, a new breed of LMS has appeared in recent months with the aim of providing tools to create MOOCs: OpenMOOC and Google CourseBuilder being two of them.

The growing interest of MOOCs has led to the emergence of different forms of use. In some cases, such as xMOOCs, the initial concept has been distorted. In other cases, such as SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses), it has become possible to use MOOCs in contexts alternatives to which they were originally created. For example, MOOCs have been used at some universities as creditable courses. And some teachers are using MOOCs as support for their lectures by applying the “flipped classroom” method.

The aim of this paper is to clarify the enormous confusion that currently exists around the MOOCs. On one hand, in this paper we categorize the different MOOCs that currently exist. On the other hand, we present a classification of MOOCs from different perspectives: content, access, use, etc. Finally, we highlight some features that should be considered in the classification of MOOCs, such as accessibility and language barriers.

Keywords

MOOC, cMOOC, xMOOC, BOOC, COOC, DOCC, MOOR, POOC, SMOC, SPOC

References

[1]   Pence, H.  (2012). When Will College Truly Leave the Building: If MOOCs are the Answer, What   is the Question? Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 41(1), pp. 25-33.

[2]   Siemens, G. (2012). What is the theory that underpins our moocs? [Online] Available:  http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2012/06/03/what-is-the-theory-that-underpins-our-moocs/

[3]   Pappano, L. (2012). The Year of the MOOC. The New York Times. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/oXI5KL

[4]   Siemens, G. (2012). MOOCs are really a platform. [Online] Available: http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2012/07/25/moocs-are-really-a-platform/

[5]   Class Central. (2014). Free Online Education. [Online] Available: https://www.class-central.com/

[6]   ICEF Monitor. (2013. Are we already entering a post MOOC era? [Online] Available: http://monitor.icef.com/2013/11/are-we-already-entering-a-post-mooc-era/

[7]   Siemens, G. (2013). Neoliberalism and MOOCs: Amplifying nonsense. Elearnspace. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/Pu8QLH

[8]   Rivard, R. (2013). Beyond MOOC Hype. Inside Higher Ed. [Online] Available:
http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/07/09/higher-ed-leaders-urge-slow-down-mooc-train

[9]   Reich, J. (2013). Is a MOOC a Textbook or a Course? Education Week. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/b3QMQ1

[10] Gaebel, M. (2013). MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses. European University Association Occasional Papers.

[11] Parr, C. (2013). MOOC makes Oxford online dictionary. Times Higher Education. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/i8SrQj

[12] Jordan, K. (2013). MOOC completion rates: The data. [Online] Available: http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.html

[13] Sanchez-Gordon, S., Luján-Mora, S. (2013). Accessibility considerations of massive online open courses as creditable courses in engineering programs. International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation ICERI 2013. IATED Digital Library, pp.853-5862

[14] Clancy, D. (2013). We are joining the Open edX platforms. [Online] Available:
http://googleresearch.blogspot.com/2013/09/we-are-joining-open-edx-platform.html

[15] Daniel, J. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2013(3)

[16] Morrison, D. (2013). The Ultimate Student Guide to xMOOCs and cMOOCs. MOOC News and Reviews. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/LGe75T

[17] Reich, J. (2012). Summarizing All MOOCs in One Slide: Market, Open and Dewey. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/R8qNnW

[18] Lane, L. (2012). Three Kinds of MOOCs. Lisa’s Teaching Blog. [Online] Available: http://lisahistory.net/wordpress/2012/08/three-kinds-of-moocs/

[19] Clark, D. (2013). MOOCs: taxonomy of 8 types of MOOC. [Online] Available: http://donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com/2013/04/moocs-taxonomy-of-8-types-of-mooc.html

[20] Hickey, D. (2014). Brief History of the BOOC, Digital Badges, and Educational Assessment. [Online] Available: http://www.indiana.edu/~booc/

[21] Comrie, C. (2013). Technology in education new battle lines. [Online] Available:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/blog/technology-in-education-new-battle-lines-19-feb-2013

[22] Jaschik, S. (2013). Feminist Anti-MOOC. Inside Higher ED. [Online] Available: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/08/19/feminist-professors-create-alternative-moocs

[23] Hosler, A. (2014). The MOOC evolves into the MOOR. Emerging Ed Tech. [Online]  Available:
http://goo.gl/65hzAn

[24] Zapata-Ríos, M. (2013). POOC. [Online]  Available:
http://redesabiertas.blogspot.com/2013/07/pooc.html

[25] Straumsheim, C. (2013). Don’t call it a MOOC. Inside Higher ED. [Online] Available:
href=”http://goo.gl/WWbmkX

[26] Sangrá, A. (2013). Do you prefer a MOOC or an SPOC? [Online] Available:
http://blogs.elpais.com/traspasando-la-linea/2013/10/prefieres-un-mooc-o-un-spoc.html

[27] Coughlan, S. (2013). Harvard plans to boldly go with SPOCS. BBC News. [Online] Available:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24166247

[28] Koller, D. (2012). What we’re learning from online education. TEDGlobal 2012, June 26.  [Online] Available:
http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_education.html

[29] Khanna, R. (2013). Democratization of access to Higher Education through MOOCs. TEDxLivermore, June 8. [Online] Available:
http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Democratization-of-access-to-Hi

[30] Fowler, G. (2013). Most MOOC Users Well-Educated, Study Finds. The Wall Street Journal, November 20. [Online] Available:
http://goo.gl/XnrnL7

[31] Ozer, M. (2013). MOOC students are highly educated, job-oriented. The Daily Pennsylvanian. [Online] Available:
http://goo.gl/N33Q6L

[32] The World Bank (2013). World Development Indicators: Internet users. [Online] Available:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.P2

[33] International Telecommunication Union (2013). World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database 2013 (17th Edition). [Online] Available:
http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/publications/wtid.aspx

[34]  Anastasopoulos, N., Baer, A.M. (2013). MOOCs: When Opening Doors to Education, Institutions Must Ensure that People with Disabilities Have Equal Access. The New England Journal of Higher Education, July 22. [Online] Available: http://goo.gl/IFJOAJ

No tags

nov/13

22

Publication: Retos de Accesibilidad en Geo-MOOCs

Appears in: IADIS Digital Library
Pages: 91-98
Publication year: 2013
ISBN: 978-972-8939-95-3
Conference: Conferencia Ibero-Americana WWW/Internet CIAWI 2013
Dates: 21-23 November, 2013
Location: Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil

Cite:

Calle-Jimenez, Tania; Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra; Luján-Mora, Sergio. Retos de Accesibilidad en GEO-MOOCs, Conferencia IADIS Ibero-Americana WWW/Internet 2013 (CIAWI 2013),  pp. 91-98, Porto Alegre (Brasil), November 21-23, 2013. ISBN: 978-972-8939-95-3.

Abstract:

El presente trabajo describe algunos de los retos que existen para lograr que cursos en línea sobre Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) que se ofrecen mediante plataformas de Cursos en Línea Masivos y Abiertos (MOOCs) sean inclusivos. Es decir, accesibles para personas con diversas discapacidades. A estos cursos, se los conoce con el nombre genérico de Geo-MOOCs.

En accesibilidad web no interesan las condiciones específicas de las personas sino el impacto que dichas condiciones tienen en su habilidad para usar la web. En este contexto, se proponen las siguientes categorías de discapacidades: visuales, motoras y del habla, cognitivas y psicosociales. Además, se debe tomar en consideración que las discapacidades pueden ser permanentes, temporales o situacionales.

Existen varias estrategias para lograr que un MOOC sea de alta accesibilidad. Una opción es evitar ciertos tipos de funcionalidades y contenidos que no son accesibles a personas con discapacidades. Esta no es una buena solución, pues conlleva una reducción general de características que se ofrecen a los usuarios. Otra propuesta es desarrollar una versión genérica del MOOC y varias versiones alternativas para distintos tipos de discapacidades. Este camino tampoco es adecuado, pues el desarrollo y soporte de múltiples versiones es costoso y en muchos casos  no viable. Además, no resuelve el problema de la segregación a usuarios.

Por tanto, se requiere proveer métodos alternativos para llevar a cabo las distintas funcionalidades y para acceder a contenidos en formatos accesibles acorde a cada tipo de discapacidad. Para esto, se requiere profundizar en los requerimientos de accesibilidad y tecnologías asistidas. Con esto, se pretende definir mecanismos para solventar los retos asociados a la implantación de dichos requerimientos en Geo-MOOCs.

Keywords:

Accesibilidad Web, Discapacitados, Sistemas de Información Geográfica, SIG, Cursos en Línea Masivos y Abiertos, Geo-MOOCs.

References:

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Appears in: IATED Digital Library
Pages: 5853-5862
Publication year: 2013
ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5
ISSN: 2340-1095
Conference: 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation ICERI 2013
Dates: 18-20 November, 2013
Location: Seville, Spain

Cite

Sánchez-Gordón, Sandra; Luján-Mora, Sergio. Accessibility considerations of massive online open courses as creditable courses in engineering programs. 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation ICERI, pp. 5853-5862, Seville (Spain), 18-20 November, 2013

Abstract

This paper proposal is to include MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) as creditable courses in engineering programs at the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador. Currently, the curriculum of all the engineering students at the National Polytechnic School includes an elective subject of three credits chosen from the course offer of the university. The idea is to expand the options of elective subjects the students can choose from with lists of selected MOOCs from global providers such as Coursera and Udacity. In addition to fulfilling a number of requirements related to the content and duration of the courses, one important challenge is that these selected MOOCs should comply with web accessibility requirements specific for the special needs of non-native speakers.Web accessibility is the property of a website to support the same level of effectiveness for people with disabilities as it does for non-disabled people. As an accessible website is designed to meet different user needs, preferences, skills and situations, this flexibility also benefits people without disabilities in certain situations, such as MOOCs students who are non-native speakers.MOOCs do not differ much from online courses that have existed for many years: a syllabus, a calendar, educational materials (mainly videos), some activities or projects, quizzes (usually multiple choice questions) to assess students’ learning, and a forum to discuss with instructors and fellow learners. Their main interest lies not so much in the courses that offers, which are courses in a broad variety of topics endorsed by recognized educational institutions, but in the fact that MOOCs can build learning communities across a common field of study globally, massively and openly. Hence, instructors, teacher assistants and students come from diverse cultures and speak different native languages.Unfortunately, MOOCs rise new challenges on web accessibility. For example, cultural differences and background knowledge has to be taken in account when choosing contents, examples, and learning activities which might be unfamiliar or even offensive to certain cultures. Also, user interfaces requires special adaptations for non-native speakers.In this paper we will present a preliminary list of web accessibility requirements, we will highlight the challenges, and we will comment possible paths of solutions with the goal to a better understanding of the special needs of non-native speakers using MOOCs. This understanding will be the base for establishing criteria for a preliminary selection of MOOCs as creditable courses in engineering programs at the National Polytechnic School. Nevertheless, this criteria can also be useful for other higher education institutions interested in including MOOCs in their official programs.

Keywords

Engineering Curriculum, Massive Open Online Courses, Web Accessibility, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, User Interface, Non-native speakers.

Acknowledgement

This research has been partly supported by the projects MESOLAP (TIN2010-14860) and GEODAS-BI (TIN2012-37493-C03-03) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

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